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Cooking technology operates the reflection of standardization
From;  Author:Stand originally
Cooking technology operation is at first learn with what division takes person art means undertakes imparting, the education thought that the science of system of lack of this kind of means is changed and be united relatively and stabilizes and teaching method, the cooking operation of apprentice can be to know its only like that, and do not know its the reason why. Go up century 50 time later period, cooking study entered classroom from inn hall, step up the academic education of cooking, cooking operation begins to study its the reason why. After 80 time, as our country reforming and opening deepen ceaselessly, higher education had flying development, in respect of cooking higher education, appeared not only education of cooking three-year institution of higher learning, undergraduate course, and the administrative levels that rises to Master education, this professional to enhancing culinary art science is changed and science of cooking of culture grade, further research rose to urge action actively. However, conventional Chinese cooking engineering technology has stronger handiwork to operate a gender, stay on empiricism from beginning to end in the making respect of dish, lack scientific and normative operation of the system. The science that operates to implement cooking technology is changed and the modern, research that accelerates cooking standardization already made the task that cooking worker must take seriously seriously. The inevitable requirement that standardization of operation of 1 cooking technology is cooking science progress the modernization of technology of basic approach cooking that standardization of operation of 1.1 cooking technology is modernization of implementation cooking science is to build what go up in standardization foundation, without the standardization that cooking operates, realize the modernization of cooking impossibly. The optional sex that cooking operates caused the uncertainty of cooking product, same a dish of the name, be in different area or by the operation of different personnel, its quality index differs however very far, sometimes ulterly changed even. Of product of the optional sex that cooking technology operates, cooking without can compare a gender, reduced the scientific sex of cooking industry not only, also affected Chinese cooking greatly the competitive position of course of study of alive bound cooking. Cooking standardization uses scientific method namely, undertake quantifying an analysis to dish, the stuff of general character is located in be operated actually, unite quality standard, normative operation method and operating sequence, drive cooking technology science to change ceaselessly thereby with modernization. Standardization of operation of 1.2 cooking technology is market economy the external demand to cooking industry falls in market economy condition, the life rhythm of people will be accelerated ceaselessly, the society is taller and taller to the requirement of cooking industry. Chinese meal handiwork manipulates the rate that restricted Chinese meal, and Chinese meal is fed as heat had special demand again, do now namely eat now, make measure ahead of schedule not quite, time restricts an element bigger, how to resolve this one contradiction, best method realizes the standardization that cooking technology operates namely. As the farther commercialization of cooking raw material, the treatment of chef and cut process will simplify greatly, the manufacturing process of cooking product will shorten greatly, the labor intensity of chef also will be reduced stage by stage. The division of labor of cooking process is refined and the collaboration on normative foundation, will drive cooking product standardization and industry efficiency to rise quickly energetically, get used to market economy to expand the external demand of pair of cooking industries thereby. Standardization of operation of 1.3 cooking technology also is the need that competes with foreign snack world of fashionable of Kendeji, Mcdonald's, the equipment that those who lean is its scientific recipe, advanced management pattern, modernization, normative operation and fast supply means. The occurrence of foreign snack and its development trend posed strong challenge to Chinese meal. Chinese meal should assimilate good thing from inside the mode of foreign snack, find out the inadequacy of oneself, the operation method of normative oneself is supplying breed, supply full text is made on means, in order to get used to market need, in rising ceaselessly thereby, cooking is in the country the competition ability of meal market. The development of engineering technology of cooking of analyse of explore of way of implementation of standardization of operation of 2 cooking technology is the crystallization of wisdom of labor of past dynasties chef, the inheritance of technology of cooking technology operation and rise, long-term since basically rely on a master impart and the realization of apprentice. Accordingly, of “ China cooking very major still stay in handmade, individual, condition ” of the small producer, the reality of cooking craft makes cooking technology operated a technology to cheat a mysterious colour, because such, also make modern science and technology is in of cooking domain apply got restrict, this is extremely harmful to the development of cooking. In fact, cooking technology has stronger handiwork to operate gender and practicality, but this is not repellent to achievement of modern science and technology apply. Machine of meat chopper, knead dough, slicer apply, reduced the labor intensity of cooking handlers greatly; The oven of far infrared ray, machine that wrap dumpling, fryer apply, the batch production that is cooking product again offerred a possibility, accordingly, must liberate a thought, face reality, meet a challenge, accept new knowledge, new technology, active exploration is made on standardization of cooking technology operation. The fixed position of 2.1 metrology and standardization have capacity and weight of bring into contact with of a lot of respects in cooking operation, the degree with the length that is like dish, ply, width, diameter, weight, lukewarm oil is waited a moment, the correct fixed position of metrology and standardization are crucial to standardization of cooking technology operation. The metrology parameter that cooking technology forms for a long time, great majority is chef people the experience summary in practice, having among them is the approximate number that must come by the feeling partly quite, same a dish can appear on the cookbook of different version different metrology, this operates medium optional sex with respect to reflective cooking, people meets in the course of time the metrology that in thinking cooking is operated, goes up without firm sense, raw material is cut a bit longlier, a bit shorter, a bit thicker, a bit thinner, a bit bigger, a bit smaller; Dressing is done not have bit morer, a bit lesser to dish quality how old influence, the study of chef also is nevertheless raw material big be sure to is small, long be sure to is short, burn unripely burn ripe just, without how much exquisite, where to still talk to go up what standardization. Kendeji why can fashionable whole world, those who lean is its standardization operation, those who lean is its quality standard. What should raise Chinese food is emulative the standardization in wanting to study cooking is operated namely. If give dish “ to fry essence of life piece ” sets particular form standard: Length is 5 centimeters, width is 2 centimeters, ply is 0.2 centimeters, this is the normative standard of this dish, in be being operated, should ask to do by this, will assess by this quality standard. Be like again, fry essence of life according to “ of salty sweet taste piece the taste standard of ” , decide its dressing is: White sugar 10 grams, refined salt 3 grams, gourmet powder 1 gram, soya bean soy 20 grams, salad oil 75 grams, yellow rice or millet wine 15 grams, sesame-seed oil 20 grams, press this standard modulation, the “ that can be used extensively at flavour of congeneric Xian Tian fries chicken piece ” , “ fries Shuang Dong ” to wait for dish. Be like again, the metric system of the respect such as the oily lukewarm, oily quantity, devoted quantity of heating time, raw material, maturity is decided, divide oily boiler commonly on a few teaching material now it is 3 kinds: Common of lukewarm oily boiler says 3, 4 into heat, 70—120 ℃ ; Common of the boiler that heat up oil says 5, 6 into heat, 130—170 ℃ ; Common of flourishing oily boiler says 7, heat up most probably, 180—240 ℃ , but Wen Sui wears these oil to firepower, raw material throws the change of the quantity and change, variable is full of in the operation, especially abecedarian is very difficult will oily lukewarm control go to proper, so how standard the standard of this respect, the author thinks, on the classification of oily boiler, want to provide the degree with lukewarm oil on one hand, want to determine the amount of grease at the same time, small oily bowl arrives for 500 grams 1500 grams; Oily boiler goes to 3500 grams for 2000 grams in; Lard boiler is 4000 grams above. Want to set the range of firepower on the other hand, at present the great majority in restaurant still is used bright internal heat, accomplish constant temperature operation to still need a paragraph of course, the regulation because of this firepower can decide only according to different fuel, distinct cooking range, with conduit gas for exemple, its mouth diameter is how old, there is fire a few rounds inside, below gas and normal circumstance, spiracle leaves sufficient, inner ring burns entirely for conflagration, take second place is medium baking temperature, again take second place is small fire to wait undertake be elaboratinged in detail. Another respect is raw material those who throw quantity and maturity is affirmatory. The breed of cooking raw material is very much, quality of a material is different also, it is same namely kind of raw material, its use place also has distinction not coessentially, the end that handles via oily boiler plus raw material, requirement each are not identical, the content that determines this respect compares difficulty really, dan Kegen occupies some kind raw material, some is planted oily boiler processing asks to decide, as above oar kind raw material, via the slippery oily processing of oily boiler, affirmatory oil boiler is lukewarm oily boiler, small oily amount, medium firepower, cast makings quantity to be 350 grams, heat time is 30- 50S, maturity becomes angry for oar layer, raw material interior just was broken unripe, slip quite tender, through such normative operation, can overcome the optional sex in the operation stage by stage, overcome the inadequacy that empiricism brings. The breed of the standardization China dish of 2.2 dish breed special, change special big, undertake the format changes processing impossibly one by one, resemble Western-style food same, western-style food breed is very much also, but formatted how many is there? French beefsteak is world-famous, choosing on makings, on configuration, basic format is changed on mature working procedure, and because of the person different still is on maturity, numerous dish also is to lie in constant development change, but why can the Kendeji in Western-style food, Mcdonald's get of people of world each country love, those who lean is standardization and agile administrative concept. Chinese meal also enjoys high reputation on the world, and be loved by more and more foreigners, but the change of Chinese meal breed is too big, same because be the same as the person's operation and a breed does not differ, make many foreigners feel spellbound, this is very adverse to cooked food of money of start shooting some. Yangzhou egg fries a meal to spread all over the Chinese meal house of world each country, get of each country people love, and the standard that the egg fries a meal however each are not identical, what what I hope is, this already caused the attention of bound of cooking of its birthplace Yangzhou, already made Yangzhou egg fry the quality standard of the meal now, this fries the operation of the meal to normative Yangzhou egg, the image that maintains Yangzhou egg to fry a meal will produce tremendous society and economic effect. Through frying the processing deciding case of the meal to Yangzhou egg, the standardization that also shows Chinese meal is feasible still, want us to strengthen the consciousness of this respect only, the standardization breed in Chinese meal will increasing. The general circuit that the standardization dish of 2.3 operating sequence makes is: Anthology makings, rough machining, fine treatment, size, hang burnt, burden, cook, outfit dish etc, and different dish its flow is not identical, want to stipulate its operate flow to want to find out their common share namely, if general dish wants to pass the flow that chooses makings, rough machining, fine treatment, slippery fried dish must pass size, delimit oily, mix fry wait for link; Stir-fry before stewing of the general need that cook food is fried, cast makings, stew to burn, control the process such as juice; Can have the common share in these congener dish refining, consider and make the quality index of each flow, overcome the optional sex of process, the standard that this will operate to enhancing craft goes to positive effect since the gender. The equipment of cooking is in the standardization of 2.4 operations equipment as the progress of science and technology to change ceaselessly, arrive from fort kitchen iron plate kitchen, arrive from gas-jar conduit is gas, arrive from fuel burning gas of electric energy apply stage by stage, operate a condition in what improve cooking ceaselessly. Standardization, program changes those who operate need modern convenience to apply, want to try to develop a can automatic adjusting control, mix automatically fry and can reflect Chinese dish the operation equipment of common characteristic, the operation that turns to implement cooking standardization and program offers external condition. The problem that standardization of operation of 3 cooking technology faces and countermeasure the 3.1 problems that face the first, theory discusses the contradiction that operates with practice. Execute to Chinese meal quantify processing, normative unit process of cargo bandling, undertake batch is produced, from theoretic tell be a likelihood, but be operated completely in practice according to these requirements, still must have a process, traditional operation method turns standardization into exercise at a draught, people still cannot be accepted completely, operation level also did not achieve this kind of requirement, but cooking should have this kind of consciousness from personnel of course of study, rise to carry out the understanding that operates standardization to craft ceaselessly, enlarge the strength that standardization operates ceaselessly, the distance between ceaseless and contractible theory and practice. The 2nd, individual dish develops the contradiction that produces with batch dish. Study the operation standardization of individual dish has been started at present, the “ that fries meal ” , Zhejiang like egg of the ” of “ large meatball of Yangzhou, “ east the ” of flesh of “ jar stew of slope flesh ” , Fujian, from the development of individual dish, formed the operation parameter of standardization basically already. But in the course that produces in batch, still index of a lot of technologies needs to rise further, if keep simple question, heat afresh the issue that holds gust is waited a moment. The 3rd, what economic benefits and equipment throw is contradictory. Undertake dish studies, do product development to need certain equipment requirement, and the product that researchs development arrives throw on the market somewhat the cycle with redound certain need, capital of fixed have enough to meet need needs to take up during this, and the economic benefits that arises from this or an unknown, the investment of capital has very big risk sex, common unit bears not to rise, this also brings adverse effect to the development innovation of cooking. 3. The 2 the way to deal with a situation that resolve these contradiction the first, the knowledge that improves cooking technology to operate standardization. Social development brings the fast rhythm that people lives necessarily, the progress of the food processing technique, technology that pack, the way of life that changes people tradition ceaselessly, 20 centuries 40 time end, the developed country undertook a “ takes the revolution of ” , world snack industry rises quickly, enter seventies, snack already fashionable whole world, still lie at present the strong position of development, the basic characteristic of snack is fast, convenient, wholesome, nutrition, and the fast, the biggest characteristic that going to the lavatory is snack. Australian “ wheat overcomes Donna ” to had begun “ one minute to serve the activity of ” , deadbeat from order dishes to go up in one's hand to food end, must be in a minute in finish, otherwise, this eat a single cent or penny does not close, of course, this is a kind of advertisement, but of snack fast, be be worthy of the name really. Want to carry out this kind of quick service, want to realize the standardization that cooking technology operates namely, cooking worker raises standardization consciousness ceaselessly only, strengthen normative practice, realize standardization ability is possible. The 2nd, undertake relevant collaboration considers to develop. The research of individual dish standardization already began to start in countrywide each district, gain better development momentum, but the actual consumption level that how joins our country and ethical characteristic, research develops the series product of more standardization, be about to strengthen collaboration to consider to develop, strengthen tie of school look forward to, break piece break up and trade dividing line, strengthen transverse combination, cooking technology operates standardization ability to step faster pace. The 3rd, the policy that seeks a government gives aid to. Cooking technology operates standardization, need gastrologist, cooking not only the research from personnel of course of study and social folk group, drive, need a government more give aid to energetically and care. The government wants to be able to resemble paying close attention to other pillar industry to develop to promote this work actively in that way, rise increasingly alive in person the people's livelihood especially, below the situation with rapidder development of facilities of each district travel, the government should throw more energy, publicize energetically, start, make favourable policy, endeavor to had coordinated each respect to concern, stimulative cooking technology operates standardization, promote the rapid development of industry of cooking science, travel and even local economy then. The 4th, cooking is carried out actively from personnel of course of study. The fact of cooking standardization changes orthodox exercise course soon, pack the new technology that cooperates to it, new technology, new facility, newly, store up newly the method, need is broad accept actively of personnel from course of study with practice, on one hand, want to develop cooking technology to operate a standard to provide first-hand data for research; The practice that should be new breed again on the other hand provides support, want to be brave in to break free from conventions, be safeguarded self-consciously and implement new operation method and standard, the development that is new breed and cooking technology operate standardization, make positive contribution for the rapid development of cooking science.

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